The capability to identify and manage one’s own emotions is mentioned as emotional intelligence. There are many skills that are included which take into account emotional intelligence where one identifies their emotions. The other skill is the capability to harness any emotion and use it for aspects such as problem-solving or thinking. The final skill is managing emotions where regulating of emotions is achieved or boosting up or calming down another person is done. Here are a few hints about emotional intelligence and how to measure and assess them.
What is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotional intelligence or emotional quotient was a term formulated by two researchers John Mayer and Peter Salavoy. The same term emotional intelligence was made prominent by Dan Goleman in his book called emotional intelligence in 1996. Emotional intelligence is defined as a term where an individual understands, identifies and manages their own emotions. They should also know to influence, identify and understand others emotions. For example, imagine yourself where you are unable to understand your friend or neighbor. When you do not know when your friend is angry or sad, such ability is mentioned as emotional intelligence by psychologist and considered as more important than IQ.
There are a number of models when emotional intelligence is considered. The original model of Goleman is now presented as the mixed model. The mixed model is a combination of trait EI and ability EI. According to Goleman emotional intelligence was mentioned as an array of characteristics or skills which lead to leadership performance. Konstantin Vasily Petrides was the one who developed the trait model in 2001. It is a collection of behavioral dispositions along with self-perceived abilities which are measured by means of self-report. Peter Salovey was the one who developed ability model in 2004 along with John Mayer. This ability model focuses on the ability of the individual in order to process emotional information and lead it to the social environment.
There is a number of research and studies that have opened up that individual who possesses a greater EI have enhanced job performance, mental health, along with leadership skills. Though there are no casual relationships brought to light, the findings have led to general intelligence and to particular personality traits.
Definition of Emotional Intelligence:
The clear definition of emotional intelligence is that it can be mentioned as the ability to monitor others and one’s own emotions. With emotional intelligence, one can reflect empathy, intelligence, and also emotions to understand persona dynamics and thoughts. The actual fact is that there is substantial disagreement when emotional intelligence and its definition are considered. The three main models of emotional intelligence are the ability model, mixed model, and trait model. With the assistance of assessment and construct, the various models are developed.
About Ability model:
In ability based model, emotions are considered useful resources that help an individual make sense and move over to social environment. The model brings out that people vary in their capability of processing information regarding emotional nature and relating emotional processing to the wider picture. The model claims emotional intelligence to about four types of abilities.
1. Perceiving emotions:
This is characteristic to detect the emotions in voices, faces, pictures and cultural artifacts. They should also identify their own emotions. This is considered basic criteria for emotional intelligence as all other processing of emotional intelligence are made possible with this.
2. Making use of emotions:
The capability to harness emotions so that various cognitive activities are facilitated which include problem-solving and thinking is by using emotions. When a person is emotionally intelligent then he can take control over their moods.
3. Understanding emotions:
The capability to cover up emotion language and also to treasure complicated relationship along with emotions.
4. Management of emotions:
This is the capability to regulate emotions in both others and in ourselves. Here the emotionally intelligent person is the one who can harness emotions even if they are negative ones and manage them to accomplish goals.
There was criticism for ability model as they do not possess predictive validity and lack face. When construct validity is considered, emotional intelligence tests are considered superior to self–report scales. This is because they compare the individual performance to standard performance and do not depend on the individual endorsement of descriptive statements.
How to Measure Emotional Intelligence?
When measuring emotional intelligence, the criterion-report or negative testing is an appropriate method to be followed. Intelligence is defined as ability and can be measured only by the answers provided by people and by evaluating the answers accuracy.
1. Revenue baron’s EQ-i:
This is a self- report test which is designed to evaluate the competencies which take into account problem-solving, stress, happiness, awareness, and tolerance. As per bar-on, emotional intelligence is considered as an array of non-cognitive capabilities, skills competencies which influence the ability of the person to go through, getting by with the environmental pressures and demands.
2. Seligman attributional style questionnaire (SASQ):
This method was actually used as a screening test for metropolitan life, Life Insurance Company. The main intention of SASQ is that measures both optimism and pessimism.
3. Multifactor emotional intelligence scale (MEIS):
MEIS is an ability test where tests are performed by test-takers which access their capability to understand, identify, and make use of emotions.
4. Emotional competence inventory (ECI):
With self-assessment questionnaire as a basis, the ECI lets people know their individual ratings about their abilities in different emotional competencies.
Psychologists have developed a number of methods to assess the various parts of the personality. When the strength for measuring or assessing a particular class is strong then that particular method is followed and developed. With the same methodology, other parts of the personality can also be measured. Though psychologists make use of a particular test for measuring intelligence, there are a number of methods with a different name such as performance testing, ability testing, and criterion-report testing. Irrespective of the type of test or name, such tests would ask the individual to solve a problem and check the accuracy related to the criterion. For example, when an intelligence test is considered they may ask what is 70 plus 70 the evaluated value according to the criterion is 140.
Apart from criterion-report testing self-judgement scales can also be followed. When self-judgement scales are followed, the individuals are asked about their own opinion or self- perception without having to check to its correctness inspite of checking the correctness. Self-judgment scales are beneficial as they help to assess internal experiences such as moods and emotions. Self-judgment can be the best choice as they present the most accurate feeling inside. In the same manner, to access the ability in emotional intelligence, there are few measures included and they are a diagnostic analysis of non-verbal accuracy, the level of emotional awareness scale, and Japanese and Caucasian brief affect recognition test.
How to Assess Emotional Intelligence?
There are several assessment tools that are utilized for emotional intelligence and are associated with Daniel Goleman. He was the one who has worked for emotional and social competence inventory or ESCI. These methodologies were developed in association with their long-term colleague Richard Boyatiz who was a professor in the Reserve University along with researchers from Mc Clelland Institute.
1. The emotional intelligence test evaluated:
This is used to decide the type of test for EI assessment is used for most appropriate use. It is good to see the results by Consortium for research on EI in organizations.
2. Technical manual ESCI:
The ESIC is used to hunt for the most recent findings and also utilized to assess technical details such as validity and readability.
The ESCI method is mainly used in graduate school level and colleges.
4. Emotional and social competence inventory (ESCI):
This method was designed by Daniel Goleman, Hay group, and Richard Boyatzis. They are ones which measure the emotional and social competencies and identifies outstanding leaders. Training and certification for the same are available at Hay group at Boston.
Emotional Intelligence Outcomes:
Emotional intelligence outcomes are few important aspects that need to be learned in order to understand the happening. In that manner, here are a few emotional intelligence skills mentioned and their relative output.
1. Emotional self-awareness:
This is a skill which is utilized to understand or perceive one’s emotions. The outcome with this skill is that the individuals have the capability to identify and one’s own feelings and its impact on thoughts, power, decisions, behavior and performance at work. They also offer a greater self-awareness.
2. Emotional expression:
This is a skill where one’s own emotion is expressed. The outcome with this skill is that it helps bring out understanding amongst various colleagues. The skill also helps in the development of trust along with the perception of genuineness amongst co-workers.
3. Emotional awareness of others:
This is considered as a skill which is used to understand and preserve others emotions. The outcome is that it provides a greater understanding of other people. It assists in helping, motivating, responding, engaging and connecting with other people. The other outcome is interpersonal effectiveness.
4. Emotional reasoning:
This is the main skill which is for utilizing emotional intelligence in decision making. The outcome for emotional reasoning is that there is improved decision making where more data is available.
5. Emotional self-management:
This is one type of skill where one emotion is managed effectively. The outcome of these skills is enhanced job satisfaction and engagement. The other outcome is that individuals are able to cope up with high work. Interpersonal effectiveness is great, the performance and productivity are also enhanced.
6. Emotional management of others:
This is a skill where the emotions and moods are influenced by others. The outcome of this skill is that there is an enhanced capacity to generate productivity and performance from others. There is more chance to generate satisfaction and optimism from others. They also gain the capacity to deal with workplace conflicts that take place.
7. Emotional self-control:
This is an important skill which is utilized to control strong emotions that are experienced. The outcome is that they are for emotional well-being, possess the capability to have a clear thinking even in stressful situations, gain the capacity to effectively deal situations irrespective of whatever happens.
These are few skills and related emotional intelligence outcomes which are beneficial in many ways. Every emotional intelligence skill and its related advantage as the outcome are mentioned.
These are a few main aspects one needs to know about emotional intelligence. There are a number of studies, research, and methods utilized for measuring and understanding emotional intelligence. The models described are many in number where only the ability model with its description and measurement methods are presented above. The emotional intelligence outcomes, assessing, and measuring of emotional intelligence are mentioned. All these hints and pointers bring a clear understanding of what EI is. There are also many other sites that offer a complete and detailed study about EI.
With EI, the organizational environment can be benefitted in a number of ways. There are numbers of researches that open up that about 90% of top leadership performers possess enhanced EI. The higher they move up in their career ladder, the more the EI becomes important. Hence, emotional intelligence is mandatory amongst employees. To know if the employees are a perfect fit for the workplace environment, their EI must be assessed.
Though there are economic landscapes, EI is something that is important for career advancement, opportunities, to be productive and lot more. There are many other sources which offer a detailed description of the assessment methods along with examples. Hence, Emotional intelligence is mandatory and individuals should make sure to understand EI and learn few aspects in order to cope up with the upcoming trend.