What Is Job Specialization?
Job specialization can be defined as a process of assigning a set of people or individual who have great expertise in a particular area to complete the work or focus on that area effectively.
As the name suggests, job specialization is nothing but having a speciality or expertise in a specific sector of work. Having such experts in every work sector of the organization would help the business immensely and also aid to acquire growth and development of the organization.
Job specialization has been a goal for several organizations and companies for years. It helps workers become the experts they are today and allows them to get even better with time.
Specialization is something that requires training, but once the worker has been able to master the skill, he or she is able to complete all assignments without much oversight or supervision.
On another hand, specialized tasks are quite repetitive and could lead to dissatisfaction in case the worker doesn’t feel motivated by the duties they get. In this post, you will learn about job specialization, its several advantages and disadvantages.
How Do You Transition Employees to Specialization?
Employees quit their jobs because of many reasons like their boss/senior, low salary, poor work culture, etc. Another vital reason is not finding enough opportunities to grow and improve their skills. Usually, organizations employ candidates to just do the work which will be scheduled to them. In such a role, the chances of growth are similar to nill.
But nowadays organizations are keen on helping their employees improve their skill set by arranging training and other programs. Turning their workforce specialized in specific work areas will, in turn, help the organization to perform their work much effectively and achieve success. This is a win-win situation for both the employee and the employer. The employees not only are able to fill in their skill gaps but also are paid incentives so that they don’t feel trapped in their job roles.
Getting specialization helps them capable of performing even better and also take up initiatives which can result in getting them senior positions in the organizations. The best way to imbibe transition in employees is to provide enough chances to develop and also to motivate them regularly.
Advantages of Job Specialization:
Some of the best advantages that come with job specialization have been enlisted in this section. Keep reading to find out more.
1. Boosts productivity:
Job specialization is something that can boost productivity. It is an important aspect and can definitely increase as well as productivity over time. It is a classic example of how specialization can boost productivity and make lives much simpler and easy.
If one worker tried to create something new by using a few parts, it would take several hours and days.
If there were ten workers who knew how to assemble those different parts of the vehicle, the productivity of every worker would be much higher than the single worker who tries to do several tasks. Specialization therefore makes production of goods easy.
2. Finding a proper job:
While productivity can benefit the employers and its workers, specialization may be advantageous to plenty and may also improve the prospects of employment. The workers who have specialized skills are often a lot more desirable than people that have general skills. Many jobs need workers to have skills and knowledge that has to be considered.
Several computer companies need workers that are versed in some software language. This is a great reason why education is important. It also allows the workers to learn about skills that are specialized.
3. Security in job:
A third advantage of job specialization is that it provides you with job security. Now this is something that most workers will probably enjoy. If a worker has a specialized skill which nobody else knows, then it will obviously be difficult for some company to replace.
If you happen to work for a tech support company and you happen to be the only person who knows how to handle and recover the data, you will definitely become more valuable towards the company than people that have no skills as such. In case the company has been forced to lay off someone, they will fire that person as well.
4. Helps employers become independent:
Specialized workers tend to become independent employees once they have learnt about the skills which are required to do the daily assignment and tasks. Self sufficient workers demand much less attention so that supervisors and managers may devote their time to training new people and overseeing the operations of the company.
A customer service representative who specializes in addressing consumer complaints doesn’t need to contact her boss every single time when there is an issue that needs to be addressed using a product or even a service. She learned the skills which are necessary to meet the needs of the customer and address them without any oversight.
5. People will want you more and more:
Once you have received job specialization, people will begin to want you more and more. They will want you to work for their company so that you can benefit them as well as themselves. Not only does your demand get boosted but you also become a much smarter person in that way. Job specialization opens doors to new opportunities and helps you land the job of your dreams. It is definitely the path to success in today’s generation.
6. You become more educated:
Education as such comes with no disadvantages. You become smarter, have much better knowledge and are able to seek better jobs. When you specialize yourself in a certain field, you are able to apply for better job opportunities. Not just that, you will be able to flaunt your knowledge to others, speak about how talented you are and even display your talent when the opportunity and time arrives. After all, learning something new shall never be wasted. You will always need it at some point or the other.
7. More opportunity to socialize:
It could seem a little funny but if you have been working for a while in the same field, you will find some sense of solidarity with the people you work. They will have the same views as they do and it will unite you as well for other causes as well as other issues. The common job role here is to unite them, to join them to wear unions and even socialize with people who are like minded so that you can understand one another in a much better way and will have a lot of similarity in their lives.
8. Saves time:
Since job specialization makes an employee skilled in a specialized job, productivity is fast and in high number as time isn’t wasted. Job specialization saves time, and leads to less wastage of materials. Machinery can also be equipped along with specialized and skilled workers which further enhances productivity. The main highlight here is that time is not wasted by switching over from one job to another and hence work flow is continuous leading to high productivity.
9. Gets higher pay:
There are many companies who look forward for specialized employees to take responsible for large units or projects. In that manner specialized employees are on high demand and they are also offered higher pay with other incentives and remunerations.
10. Accuracy in job:
Job specialized employees work with dedication on their concerned job. They work on a part of the job process and hence they are specialized and offer accurate output.
Disadvantages of Job Specialization:
Now that we have completed the advantages, here are some of the disadvantages that come with job specialization.
1. Become outdated after a point:
Job specialization does become quite outdated after a point. This is something people often experience during their mid career. When new trend sets in, the business begins to change, the jobs which are being carried out become quite outdated.
There were new demands of typists in the organization during earlier times. But now that we have personal computers, nobody wants them anymore.
2. Masters one skill:
Having mastered just one type of skill with very little experience in one field, you will have no growth in terms of your career. This will become even more hard when jobs will become leaner and people will not want it anymore, just like they don’t want typists anymore.
3. Omitted from all positions of managers:
Since you will always focus on finishing the job, you might end up getting sidelined whenever a managerial position is required. Specializing in some tasks and finding people who don’t make you their choice since any post like those kinds of works and tasks will not effect the business in any way!
4. Gets monotonous:
You must all be aware that job specialization is something that will allow people to focus on any aspect of such work one day after the other, they will be expected to repeat the same. With more time, the task doesn’t have any challenges and assignments and it will become boring. When you get bored with you job after a time, it will lead to loss of interest and dissatisfaction.
5. Reduces sight:
Companies do check those sections often which cater towards the requirements of the section with some specialized team of people who will focus on the goals and lose track of the company and its goals. Also there was noticed very little signs of communication in all units which hinder the cycle of production. The issues of coordination which incur the team of production doesn’t collaborate with teams or other units.
6. Cannot go for breaks:
The sad part of specialization of jobs is that you cannot take any breaks with them. After all, you will not be able to replace it with anything else. The work forces its members to go for breaks for important purposes; they often do not take since it is irreplaceable. This will also hinder the recreation and make it much difficult for employees. This becomes one moment that companies often face when they have the opportunity to find somebody to replace it with the absence. But if they don’t ever get a break, it will affect the line of production since the replacement has no necessary experience which is needed for better production.
7. Stops you from multi tasking:
Job specialization does stop you from multi tasking in so many ways. Sometimes, when we specialize ourselves in something, we think we have done enough but that is not the truth. We stop ourselves from multitasking. As we have focused on just one aspect of work, we will not be able to multitask in the future. If we have been trained from the start from the beginning then all the categories of people will not be allowed for such work assignments.
8. Lacks variety:
Job specialization, though has skilled workers who produce more outputs, they feel exhausted and uninteresting as they do not face new challenges. There is no variety in whatever they do and hence do not find their job colorful. This repetition also does not boost motivation for the employees as they just complete one part of the job and hence they feel that they aren’t fulfilling the given task.
By this way, the employees are led to dissatisfaction and the employee turnover is high and leads to more absenteeism.
9. Require training:
In order to become a specialized employee in a particular job, the organization needs to offer employees with training. Training employees leads to higher cost.
10. Leads to unemployment:
Unemployment can be a result of job specialization, because at times of recession or layoff, the employee would not be called for the same category of opportunity in another organization. This can be a deadlock situation as the employee is skilled and specialized in just one area. Hence unemployment can be a risk with job specialization. Along with job specialized skills, there also have to be certain other general skills while hunting for a job.
11. Not updated:
Employees are specialized on a particular work or project and they may continue it for prolonged period. They aren’t updated and do not develop skills on the latest technology or work, hence they are backward and less skilled as years go by. This is one main disadvantage which keeps employee fixed at one point.
These are a few advantages and disadvantages of job specialization which can be glimpsed through before conducting a recruitment drive. Job specialization is beneficial for both the employer and the employee.
Employees are specialized in certain area and they have abundant knowledge of the same and work to produce outstanding results in an organization. Employers who decide to recruit specialist in any organization can be assured to that the job would be completed in an effective manner, by qualified professionals. Job specialization leads to higher success and may provide the employees with a number of advantages as mentioned above.
This brings the post to an end. If you have enjoyed reading the article and found some benefit from it, do let us know in the comment box below. Always remember that job specialization is beneficial but it also comes with a few cons that you should be careful about. If you think you can handle the system, well and good. Otherwise there are other choices you can try to keep your company going. On that note, good luck and do let us know more.